About Me

CURRICULUM VITAE

April 2021


Name:

MWANDOSYA, Mark James


Date of Birth


28th December, 1949. Mbeya, Tanzania


Marital Status


Married with 3 children and 3 grandchildren


Website: www.markmwandosya.com


Schools Attended

Majengo Primary School, Mbeya, 1957-1958

Chunya Primary School, 1959-1964

Malangali Secondary School, 1965-1968

Dar-es-Salaam Technical College, 1969-1970


University Education


University of Aston, Birmingham, England, October 1971-July 1974


University of Birmingham, England, September 1974-May 1977


Qualifications


Bachelor of Science 1st Class Honours (Electrical Engineering), University of Aston, U.K. 1977


Doctor of Philosophy (Electronic and Electrical Engineering), University of Birmingham, U.K. 1977


Membership to Professional Organizations


Member, Institute of Directors Tanzania


Fellow of the Institution of Engineers Tanzania


Registered Engineer (T)


Fellow of the Tanzania Academy of Sciences




Public Service


Minister of State (President's Office) (2013-2015)


Minister for Water (2010-2013)


Minister for Water and Irrigation (2008-2010)


Minister of State for Environment (Vice President's Office) (2006-2007)


Minister for Communication and Transport (2000-2005)


Member of Parliament for Rungwe East Constituency (2000-2015)


Principal Secretary (Permanent Secretary) for Industries and Trade (1993-1994)


Principal Secretary (Permanent Secretary) for Water Energy and Minerals (1990-1992)


Commissioner of Energy and Petroleum Affairs (1985-1990)


Academic Positions and Experience


Chancellor,

Mbeya University of Science and Technology (2014-2019)


Professorial Research Chair,

Energy Technology and Management, University of Dar es Salaam (1995-2000)


Professor,

Electrical Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam (1987-2000)


Associate Professor,

Electrical Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam (1984 - 1987)


Senior Lecturer,

Electrical Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam (1980-1984)


Lecturer,

Electrical Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam (1977-1980)


Assistant Lecturer,

Electrical Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam (1976-1977)


Tutorial Assistant,

Electrical Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam (1974-1976)


Senior Research Scientist,

Centre for Energy and Environmental Studies, Princeton University, USA (1983-1984)


Visiting Lecturer,

Petroleum Policy and Management, Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD), Stavanger, Norway (1991-1993)


Graduate Teaching Assistant,

University of Birmingham (1974-1976)


Visiting Scholar,

Technical University of Eindhoven (April 1981)


Visiting Scholar,

Birmingham University (May 1981)


External Examiner,

Control Engineering, University of Zambia (1980)


External Examiner,

Control Engineering, University of Nairobi (1980)

Editor-in-Chief,

UHANDISI, Journal of the Faculty of Engineering, University of Dar-es-Salaam


Awards

Griffiths Memorial Prize, University of Aston, 1973.


Institute of Electrical Engineers (UK), Annual Prize, 1974.


Chairmanship of Corporations and Companies

Chairman, Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation (1996-2000)


Chairman, Siemens (Tanzania) Ltd. (1998-2000)


Chairman, Centre for Energy, Environment Science and Technology (1994-2000)

Chairman, Board of Directors of Kibo Paper Industries Ltd (1995 - 1998)


Chairman, Williamson Diamond Mining Company Ltd (1990-1992)


Chairman, Council of the Tanzania Industrial Research and Development Organization (TIRDO) (1996-2000)


Chairman, National Urban Water Authority (NUWA) (1991-1993)


Chairman, Tanzanian and Italian Petroleum Refinery (TIPER) (1987-1993)


Chairman, Governing Board, College of Business Education (1992-1993)


Co-Chairman, Executive Committee of the UNESCO National Commission (1983-1988)


Chairman, Governing Board of the Mwalimu Nyerere Memorial Academy (2019)


Chairman (Alternate), Council of Ministers, Tanzania-Zambia Railway (TAZARA) (2000-2005)


Directorship of Corporations, Companies and Public Entities


Deputy Chairman, UNESCO National Commission (1983-1988)


Vice Chairman, National Development Corporation (NDC) (1992-1993)


Vice Chairman, Board of Trustee of Southern African Development through Electricity (SAD- ELEC)


Commissioner, Presidential Parastatal Sector Reform Commission (1996-1999).

Director, TAZAMA Pipeline Ltd. (1987-1993)


Director, National Textile Corporation (TEXCO) (1993)


Member, Governing Board, Institute of Development Management (IDM - Mzumbe) (1992- 1993)


Director, Tanzania Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA) (1992-1993)


Director, Tanzania Posts and Telecommunication Corporation (TPTC) (1981-1986)


Director, Tanzania Electric Supply company (TANESCO) (1985-1990)


Director, Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation (TPDC) (1985-1990)


Director, Kilwa Ammonia Company Ltd (KILAMCO) (1985-1990)


Director, Gas Company (GASCO) (1985-1990)


Director, AGIP (Tanzania) Ltd. (1989-1991)


Director, Tanga Steel Rolling Mills Ltd


Commissioner, Tanzania Communication Commission


Director, Standard Chartered Bank Tanzania Limited


Member, Council of Sokoine University of Agriculture (1993-1999)


Member, Council of the University of Dar es Salaam


Member, Council of the Makumira University College of the Tumaini University (2003 - 2006)


Member, Tanzania National Scientific Research Council (1981-1983 and 1985-1987)


Member, Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology (1987-1990)


Member (Alternate), Board of Directors, Tanzania Industrial Research and Development Organization (T1RDO) (1980-84)


Member, Advisory Board of the PanAfrican Energy Tanzania Ltd (2016-2019)


Founder Member, Steering Committee,International Resource Panel. United Nations Environment Programme.


Other Public Duties


Chairman of the Natural Science Committee of the UNESCO National Commission (1978-1983)

Member of the Organizing Committee of the Workshop on Global Energy End-Use Strategies (1983)


Regional Coordinator, Regional Energy Studies Programme (1983)


Member, Tanzania Scientific and Technological Achievements Awards Committee, (1982-1986)


Member, of the Inter-ministerial Kilwa Ammonia Company (KILAMCO) Negotiating Team (1985- 1990)


Chairman of the Inter-ministerial Energy Policy Task Force (1988-1991).


Member of the Team of Experts on the Tanzania Long-Term Development Perspective (National Vision 2025).

Theses Accepted for Higher Degree

Mwandosya, M.J., 'Line and Force Commutated Single PhaseThyristor Convertors'. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University Birmingham, 1977.


Published Papers

Mwandosya, M.J., and Mellitt, B., Input Characteristics of a Double Bridge Fed-Chopper for A.C. Traction Applications, IEE Publications No. 154, Power Electronics - Power Semi- Conductors and their Applications, pp. 109-112, Sept. 1977.

Mwandosya, M.J., On the Fast Fourier Transform in the Estimation of the Harmonic Content of Convertor Circuits, Uhandisi, Journal of the Faculty of Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam. Vol. 5 No. 1 pp 43-47, Jan., 1980.


Mwandosya, M.J., and Mellitt, B., Input Characteristics of Naturally Commutated Single-Phase Asymmetrical Convertors, IEE Proceedings, Vol. 127, Part B. No. 2 March 1980. pp 107 - 116.

Mwandosya, M.J., Multibridge Sequencing of Asymmetrical Single Phase Convertors, Uhandisi, Journal of Faculty of Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam. Vol. 7, No. 1, pp 44-58, January 1983.


Mwandosya, M.J., Generalized Design Curves for Unsymmetrical Single Phase convertors, University Science Journal, University of Dar es Salaam, Vol. 9, pp 107-125, 1983.


Luhanga, M.L., and Mwandosya, M.J., Classical Analysis of Control Systems Using the Smith's Chart'. International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education, Vol. 21, pp 129-138, April, 1984.

Mwandosya, M.J., A Digital Computer Simulation of the Diode-Bridge Fed Chopper for Traction Applications, Kenya Journal of Science and Technology, 1984.

Mwandosya, M.J., Subramanyam, V. and Mohamed, M.R, 'Stability Analysis of a Variable Frequency Induction Motor Using D-Decomposition', Archiv for Elektrotechnik 68 (1985).

Mwandosya, M.J., and Luhanga, M.L., 'An Analytical Model for a Biomass System', Energy (the International Journal), Vol.10, No.9, pp 1023 - 1028, September 1985.

Mwandosya, M.J., and Luhanga, M.L.P., Energy Use Patterns in Tanzania, Ambio, A Journal of the Human Environment, Vol. XIV. No. 4-5, pp 237-241, October 1985.

Luhanga, M.L., and Mwandosya, M.J., Phase Lead Compensation Using the Smith Chart, International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education, Vol. 23, pp. 37-41, 1986.

Luhanga, M.L. and Mwandosya, M.J., Analysis of a Discrete Queue Using the Maximum Entropy Method. Kenya Journal of Science and Technology series A (1987): 8(1-2), pp 95-98.

Luhanga, M.L., and Mwandosya, M.J., Gain and Phase Margin Interrelationships, Uhandisi, Journal of the Faculty of Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam, Vol.10, No.2, pp 24-29, 1989.

Luhanga, M.L., and Mwandosya, M.J., Adaptation of Compensation Techniques Based on Bode Diagrams on the Smith Chart, The Tanzania Engineer Vol.3, No.2, pp 11-15, March 1990.

Hosier, R.H., Boberg, J., Luhanga, M.L., and Mwandosya, M.J., Energy Planning and Wood Balances, Natural Resources Forum, pp 143-153, May 1990.

Luhanga, M.L., Mwandosya, M.J, and Nzali, A.H., PI, PD, and PID Controller Design Using the Smith Chart, The Tanzania Engineer, Vol.3, December 1990, pp 31-37.

Luhanga, M.L., and Mwandosya, M.J., Analysis and Design of Non-Linear Systems Using the Smith Chart and Describing Functions, African Journal of Science and Technology, Vol.5, No. l, pp 37-42, January, 1991.

Hosier, R.H., Mwandosya, M.J., AND Luhanga, M.L., Future Energy Development in Tanzania, The Energy Costs of Urbanisation, Energy Policy, vol. 21, No.5, pp 524-541, May, 1993.

Luhanga, M.L., Mwandosya, M.J. and Luteganya, P. P., Optimisation in Computerised Energy Modelling for Tanzania, Energy, The International Journal, Vol. 18, No. 1 l, pp 117-1179, 1993.

Mwandosya, M.J. and Luhanga, M.L., Design of Phase-Lag Compensators Using the Smith Chart, The Kenya Journal of Science, Series A: Physical and Chemical Sciences, Vol.10, No. l, pp 114-123, 1996.

Luhanga, M.L., Mwandosya, M.J., and Nzali, A.H., Derivation of Wind Speed Probability Density Functions Using the Maximum Enthropy Method, Tanzania Journal of Science, Vol.17, pp37 - 44, 1991


Mwandosya, M.J., and Luhanga, M.L., Energy and Development in Tanzania: Issues and Perspectives, Energy Policy, Vol.21, No.5, May 1993, pp 441-453.


Nzali, A.H., Mwandosya, M.J., and Luhanga, M.L., A Re-Derivation of Extraterrestrial Insolation Energies on Planes Using Only Kepler's Laws, The Tanzania Engineer, Vol.6, No.2, May, 1997, pp14-20.


Mwandosya, M.J., and Luhanga, M.L.,Energy Planning, Energy Technologies and Development, In H. Egneus, A Ellegard, P.O.'Keefe and L. Kristofferson (eds), Bioenergy 84, Vol. V: Bioenergy in Developing Countries, pp. 22-49, Applied Science Publishers, London, 1985.


Mwandosya, M.J., and Luhanga, M.L., Blockchain: A Disruptive and Transformative Technology of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, University of Dar es Salaam Business Management Review(BMR) Vol.23 No.2, 2020

https://t.co/iGKVsUXEzO



Research Reports

Mwandosya, M.J. and Mellitt, B., 'Waveform Characteristics of Single-Phase Thyristor Convertors' Departmental Memorandum No.471, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Birmingham


Mwandosya, M.J., Research and Development in Energy in Tanzania' Strengthening of Energy Research Capacity in Developing Countries. SAREC Report R2. 1983, pp 131-134.

Mwandosya, M.J., 'A Train Borne Energy Storage Propulsion System', Research Report FC - 79 - 01. Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam. In revised form paper presented at The ANSTI Electrical Engineering 1986 Conference, Held Faculty of Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam, October, 1986.

Mwandosya, M.J. and Luhanga, M.L., A Compendium of Energy Sources in Tanzania. The International Development Research Centre, Manuscript Report No. IDRC - MR 176e, Ottawa, Canada, February, 1988

Mwandosya, M.J., and Luhanga, M.L., Energy, Research, Development and Extension Projects in Tanzania, The International Development Research Centre Manuscript Report No. IDRC - MR 257e, Ottawa, Canada, April, 1990.

Victus, A.M., and Mwandosya, M.J., Industrial Energy Use in Urban Tanzania, Energy Environment and Development Series - No. 27 Stockholm Environment Institute 1994.

Rutabanzibwa, P., Mwandosya, M.J., Energy Use in the Urban Transport Sector in Tanzania, Energy and Environment and Development Series No.28, Stockholm Environment Institute, 1994


M.J. Mwandosya and Luhanga, M.L.,Control Engineering Lecture Notes, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam, 1981.


Nzali, A.H., Mwandosya, M.J, and Luhanga, M.L, A Derivation Of a More Exact Expression for the Solar Declination Angle and Some Important Trigonometrical Relations in Solar Energy Using Geometrical Relationship. Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.


Mwandosya, M.J. and Luhanga, M.L., Energy Use Patterns in Tanzania, Princeton University Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, PU/CEES Report No. 188, February 1982.


Nzali, A.H, Mwandosya, M.J, and Luhanga, M.L, A Derivation of a More Exact Expression for Instantaneous Earth Sun Distance Using Only Kepler's Laws and Some Geometrical Relationships.

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.


Mwandosya, M.J.; and Luhanga, M.L.; Sources and Sinks of Greenhouse Gases in Tanzania - Final Report submitted to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), CEEST Report No: 05/1995.


Mwandosya, M.J.; Luhanga, M.L.; and Kipondya, W.D., Rapid Assessment of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) in Dar es Salaam, Centre for Energy Environment Science and Technology, CEEST Report No: 07/1994.


Mwandosya, M.J.; Ndlela, D.; Shanker, A.; and Weinghart, T.; Zimbabwe - Photovoltaics for Household and the Community, Independent Project Review, UNDP/GEF Technical Assistance Project, Project No.ZIM/92/G31/lG/01, Prepared for the UNDP Regional Bureau for Africa and the Global Environment Facility, September, 1994.



Papers Published in Conference Proceedings

Mwandosya, M.J., and Kaale, B.K., 'Fuelwood Supply and End Uses in Tanzania' in Energy for Development - Mwandosya M.J., Lwakabamba S.B. and Nkonoki S.R. (Editors), pp 172-191.


Mwandosya, M.J., Luhanga, M.L. and Hassanali, M.G., 'Harnessing Wind Energy' Commonwealth Energy. Group Meeting, Arusha, Tanzania, September, 1979.


Mwandosya, M.J., and Kabisama, H. W., ‘Looking into the Future of Electrical Engineering Education’, International Conference of Electrical Engineering Education, Adelaide, Australia, pp 30-306, 1981.

Lwakabamba, S.A., and Mwandosya, M.J. 'The Role of the Faculty of Engineering in the Transfer of Technology'. Presented at IDRC/IDS Eastern African Regional Working Group on Transfer of Technology, Arusha, Tanzania 16-20 September, 1981.

Mwandosya, M.J., 'New and Renewable Energy Sources in Tanzania' with emphasis on Financing Aspects, OPEC FUND/NORDIC Countries Seminar on Financing of New and Renewable sources of Energy in Developing Countries, pp. 73-77, seminar proceeding, State Printing Centre, Helsinki, 1982.


Mwandosya, M.J., 'Energy and Renewable Energy Resources for Morogoro and its Impact Area'. UNESCO Sub-Regional Workshop on Energy for Rural and Dispersed Populations, Bujumbura, Burundi, December 1982, 35 pp.


Mwandosya, M.J. 'An End-Use Focused Energy Assessment for Tanzania', Workshop on an End-Use Focused Global Energy Strategy, Princeton University, April 1982, 48 pp.


Mwandosya, M.J., 'On Training in the Energy Sector in Tanzania and the East Africa Sub Region', Workshop on Training in Solar Energy Nuclear Research Centre , Cadarache, France (UNESCO Sponsored Workshop) Nov. 14- 17, 1983.


Mwandosya, M.J., and Luhanga, M.L.P., Energy Planning, Energy Technologies and Development. In Egneus, H., et. al (Eds), Bioenergy 84 Vol.5 Bioenergy in Developing Countries pp 22-37 Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, 1985.


Mwandosya, M.J., and Nkonoki, S., Solar Energy Progress in Tanzania Proceedings of African Solar Energy Workshop Atlanta, Georgia, 1979, Vol. 1, pp 49-50.

Mwandosya, M.J., Luhanga, M.L., and Hassanali, H., Harnessing Wind Energy, Africa Energy Programme, Report of the Project Group Meeting, 20-26 Sept., 1976, Arusha, Tanzania. Commonwealth Science Council Publication CSC (76) AEP-2, Vol, II: Resource Materials, pp. 3-8.

Editorship of Journals, Books, Seminars, Conference Proceedings

Mwandosya, M.J., Lwakabamba, S.B., and Nkonoki, S.R. (Editors), Energy for Development, Proceedings of a Workshop. Lund University Press, 1983.

Mwandosya, M.J. and Luhanga, M.L. (Eds)., Proceedings of the Seminar on National Energy Policy for Tanzania, Held 10-14 September, 1990, Arusha, Tanzania, Published by the Stockholm Environment Institute, 1991.

Hosier, R.H. (Guest Editor), Mwandosya, M.J. and Luhanga, M.L. (Assistant Editors)., Urban Energy and Environment in Africa, Energy Policy (Special Issue) Vol. 21, No.5, May 1993.

Mwandosya M.J., and Nyenzi, B.S., (Eds) Proceedings of the Workshop on Initiative Towards Understanding a Joint Implementation Regime to Support National Priorities in Tanzania, CEEST Publications Í996, ISBN 9987-612-032.

Mwandosya, M.J. and Luhanga, M.L. (Eds), Pollution in the Manufacturing Sector in Tanzania, Proceedings of Roundtable Discussion, Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, Research Report Series No.2, Dar es Salaam, 1995. ISBN 9987-612-016

Mwandosya, M.J., Luhanga, M.L., and Mugurusi, E.K. (Eds), Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development, Proceedings of the Workshop on the National Environmental Policy in Tanzania, held 21-25 November, 1994, Dar es Salaam. Published by CEEST, ISBN 9987-612-04-0.

Mwandosya, M.J., Mbowe, G.F., and Young, P., Competition Policy and Utility Regulation, Proceedings of a Workshop on Competition Policy and Utility Regulation in Tanzania, held in Dar es Salaam, 20-22 January, 1997, Published by CEEST, ISBN No 9987-612-07-5.

Mwandosya, M.J., Mwapachu, J.V., and Wangwe, S.M. (Eds), Towards a New Millenium: Perspectives on Tanzania's Vision 2025, Proceedings of a Retreat and Workshop on the Tanzania Development Vision, held at Mkonge Hotel, Tanga 16-20 September 1996, Published by CEEST, 1998 ISBN No 9987 612105.

Mwandosya, M.J., and Luhanga, M.L. (Eds), Proceedings of the Seminar on the National Energy Policy for Tanzania, 10-14 September, 1990 Arusha, Tanzania. Published by The Stockholm Environment Institute, 1991. ISBN 91-881-16-25-5.

Mwandosya, M.J. Luhanga, M.L., Heiberg,S., and Berg, O. (Eds), Securing Petroleum Supplies in Eastern Africa, Proceedings of a seminar held in Arusha, Tanzania, 7-11 September, 1992, Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (PETRAD), International Programme for Petroleum Management and Administration, Publication No.5.


Published Books


Mwandosya, M.J., and Luhanga, M.L., Energy Resources Flows and End-uses in Tanzania . Dar es Salaam University Press 1983. ISBN 9976-60-006-2


Luhanga, M.L., and Mwandosya, M.J., Control System Analysis and Design Using the Smith Chart Wiley Eastern Publishers Ltd New Delhi, India, 1990. ISBN 81-2224-0203-8

Mwandosya, M.J., Energy - The Mutuality of Science and Technology, Professorial Inaugural Lecture, University of Dar es Salaam, 9 November, 1989, the Dar es Salaam University Press, 1990,

Mwandosya, M.J., and Meena, H.E., Technological and Other Options for the Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases in Tanzania, CEEST Publications, 1996, ISBN 9987-612-059.

Mwandosya, M.J., Semesi, A.K., Pamba, S., and Francis, J., Towards a Strategy for the Convention of Coastal Biological Diversity in Tanzania, CEEST Publications, 1997, ISBN 9987-612- 06-7.

Mwandosya, M.J., Kinyanjui, M. and Sawe, E.N., Development and Diffusion of Wood Energy Conservation Technology in Tanzania - The Experience of the Energy 1 Project, CEEST Publications, 1997, ISBN 9987-612-08-3.

Mwandosya, M.J., Nyenzi, B.S., and Luhanga, M.L., The Assessment of Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change Impacts in Tanzania, CEEST Publications, 1998, ISBN 9987-612-11-3.

Mwandosya, M.J., and Meena, H.E., Dar es Salaam Water Demand: An End-Use Perspective. CEEST Publications, 1998, ISBN 99987-612-12-1

Mwandosya, M.J., and Luhanga, M.L., Fundamentals of Control Engineering, Dar es Salaam University Press, 1999, ISBN 9976-60294-4

Mwandosya, M.J., Survival Emissions: A Perspective from the South on Global Climate Change Negotiations, Dar es Salaam University Press and CEEST Publications, 1999. ISBN 9976-60-313-4

Mwandosya, M.J., Sauti ya Umma ni Sauti ya Demokrasia. CEEST Foundation, 2002. ISBN 978-9987-612-35-2


Mwandosya, M.J., Daraja Juu ya Mto Nile, E&D Vision Publishing, Dar es Salaam. ISBN


Mwandosya, M.J., Bridge Across the River Nile, E&D Vision Publishing, Dar es Salaam, 2017. ISBN 978-9987-735-54-9


Mwandosya, M.J., Udhibiti wa Huduma za Kiuchumi Tanzania, E&D Vision Publishing, Dar es Salaam. ISBN 978-9987-735-09-9






Consultancies


Consultant (Energy), Morogoro Master Plan Review, 1982

Consultant to UNESCO on a Preliminary Study on an International Information System Relating to New and Renewable Energy Sources (Ethiopia, Kenya, Zambia, Nigeria, Botswana, Tanzania) January - June, 1980.

Consultant for UNESCO on the Sub Regional Pilot Project on Energy Information (Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Rwanda, Burundi and Kenya), May-July 1983.

Consultant to SADCC Secretariat, SADCC Regional Cooperation on Science and Technology, May - August 1987.

Consultant to the African Development Bank, Preparation of the African Energy Programme, October 1988.

Consultant, UNDP Regional Bureau for Africa and GEF, Zimbabwe - Photovoltaics for Household and the Community, an Independent Project Review, 1994.

Lead Consultant, Southern African Development Community (SADC), Energy Protocol Development; August 1994-July, 1995.

Consultant, Organization of African Unity (OAU), Development of the Energy and Natural Resources Protocol, 1999.

Consultant, Bank of Tanzania, Appraisal of Physical Infrastructure, National Payment System Modernization Project, 1997


Regional, Multilateral and International Engagements

Participant, 2nd International Conference on Power Electronics, Power Semi-conductors and their Applications, IEE, London 21st to 24th September, 1977.

Delegate, 20th Session of UNESCO General Conference, Paris, France, October/November, 1978.

Participant, International Seminar on Solar Energy Technology in Rural Settings: Assessment of Field Experience, United Nations University, Atlanta, USA, May 25th - May 26th, 1979.

Participant, International Solar Energy Society, 1979 Congress, Atlanta USA, May 28th - 1st June, 1979.

Study tour of solar Energy Institute and Installations in US, Organized by USAID, June, 3rd - June 18th, 1979.

Participant, Commonwealth Energy Group Meeting, Arusha, Tanzania, September, 1979.

Vice Chairman, of the Meeting of Experts to Advise on Future UNESCO Policy on Matters Relating to Energy, Paris, France, December, 1979.

Delegate, United Nations Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy, Nairobi, Kenya, 10-21st August, 1981.

Delegate, UN Intergovernmental Committee on New and Renewable Source of Energy, Rome, 7-18 June 1982.

Chairman Commonwealth Regional Workshop on Standards in New and Renewable Energy, July 1982.

Participant, SAREC workshop on Energy Research in Developing countries, Stockholm, 18-22 January 1982.

Participant, Workshop on an End-Use Focused Global Energy Strategy, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA, 21 -28 April, 1982.

Convenor, Workshop on Energy for Development, Arusha, Tanzania, April 3-4, 1983.

Rapporteur, Meeting of Experts on Exchange of Information on Science and Technology Education, UNESCO, Paris, 18-22 October 1982.

Delegate, 4th Extraordinary General Conference of UNESCO, Paris, 23 November - 3rd December 1982.

Participant, UNESCO sub-Regional Workshop on Energy for Rural and Dispersed Populations, Bujumbura, Burundi, 16-22 December 1982.

Participant, Workshop on Training in Solar Energy, UNESCO, Council for Europe, CERN, Nuclear Research Centre of Cadarache, France, Nov. 14-17, 1983.

Participant, 3rd International Conference on Energy Use Management, Berlin, October, 1981.

Participant, OPEC FUND/NORDIC Seminar on the Financing of New and Renewable Energy Sources in Developing Countries, Helsinki, 1982.

Delegate 2nd UN Intergovernmental Committee on New and Renewable sources of Energy, New York, May, 1984.

Chairman, 2nd Steering Committee Meeting of the sub-Regional Pilot Project on Energy Information, UNESCO, ROSTA, Nairobi, October 1985.

Convenor, Seminar on Oil and Gas Exploration in the SADCC Region, Arusha, 26-29 November 1986.

Delegate, UNESCO Conference of African Ministers Responsible for Science and Technology, Arusha, 6-16 July 1987.

Delegate, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Conference of the Parties (CoPl) Berlin, Germany March - April 1995.

Member, International Steering Committee, 1996 World Renewable Congress Colorado, USA, 16 - 21 June 1996.

Delegate United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties (CoP2) Geneva, Switzerland, 7-20 July 1996.

Delegate to Meetings of the Subsidiary Bodies of the United Nations Framework Convention, 9-18 December 1996, Geneva, and Switzerland.

Delegate, Meetings of Subsidiary Bodies of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change February - 7 March 1997, Bonn, Germany.

Delegate, Meetings of Subsidiary Bodies of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 28July - 7 August, 1997 Bonn, Germany.

Delegate Meetings of Subsidiary Bodies of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change-20 - 31 October, 1997 Bonn, Germany.

Delegate United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 3rd Conference of Parties (CoP 3); Kyoto, Japan, 30 November - 10 December 1997.

Chairman of the Group of 77 and Spokesman for the G77 and China in all meetings of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1997.

Chief Negotiator and Spokesman for the Group of 77 and China in the negotiations for the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 1997.

Guest Speaker, Beyond the Kyoto Conference on Global Warming: Can the US Developing Countries Agree on a Course of Action. Council for Foreign Relations, New York, 20 May 1998.

Countries visited

Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Comoro, Swaziland, Lesotho, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Botswana, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of the Congo (Congo Brazzaville), Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Egypt, Nigeria, Ghana, Senegal, Morocco, Tunisia, United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Germany, Switzerland, Luxembourg, Italy, Hungary, Serbia, Kazakhstan, Yemen, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, India, Thailand, Vietnam, China, China (HongKong), Malaysia, South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Indonesia, Australia, New Zealand, United States of America, Canada, Jamaica, Suriname, Peru, Brazil, Argentina